Benchmark 6: Strategy and Message Development – Group 1: Health and Healthcare

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OUR MISSION:Our group has chosen low-income parents with children ages 2-18 years old in the U.S. as our target audience. We will be designing a behavior-change campaign.

Replyesearching Audience

Benchmark 5: CMME 3183

The demographic group for the designed campaign is the young people who are below 35s years, and they are interested in learning more about healthy eating habits. Most of young people are more worried about the kind of food they feed on following several health warnings they are exposed from the historical information. College students are the critical participants towards this campaign since they invariably involve in research to understand the misconceptions that underpin the fear of food to provide evidence-based findings to the general public the truth about the issue. In the previous discussion, Levenstein identified germs and food poisoning, constipation, canned, and processed foods to be the significant problems that increase the fear among the Americans when it comes to food choices (Levenstein, 2013). Hence, the campaign will aim at showing the target audience the importance of understanding the food content they feed on to avoid the unhealthy eating habit.

The designed campaigns will be a combination of the creation of awareness and behavioral change to show the public the strategies they can adapt to change the way they respond to food. In the campaign, people need to be aware of health-related issues and take the deceptive measures to remove the anxiety created from the food they feed on. The creation of awareness campaigns will educate people on hygienic practices and kitchen sanitation as one strategy of combating food poisoning. Also, the scientific evidence will be presented on them to learn some of the attributes that constitute food poisoning and the spread of germs (Hussain & Dawson, 2013). Food safety will be the key message for the audience to understand that ending the fear of food can be achieved by each one taking full responsibility for their action.

The second message in the campaign will be on constipation, which will be done through behavioral change campaigns as most Americans make a poor choice of their diet as they have shunned from eating fruits and vegetables in favor of consuming fatty meat. In the campaign, behavioral change needs to be addressed following the fact that most Americans have the habit of consuming food rich in fat content with fewer fibers. Due to poor meat preservation, it causes many illnesses and an increased mortality rate (Bae, 2014). Hence, the campaign targets showing the public importance of changing their behaviors and consider the recommendation from nutritionists concerning their diet. Health promotion among people is quite significant in encouraging them to consider fiber content in every food they feed.

The last message for the campaign among the designed target audience is canned and processed food, as it argued that it could control the spread of germs and bacteria. Youth is the critical factor when implementing a change in society, and they can help communicate to people the importance of eating healthy food. The fear created among people is due to lack of information, with most of it lacking substantial evidence to back up their arguments. People should understand that most of the processed food is altered during preparation, and some of the chemicals used can affect their health, including the risk of developing cancer (Fardet, 2016). The message for the campaign will be information on nutritional value as the processed food lack enough ingredients to achieve the required standard for human health. Thus, the campaign will defuse the misconception people have on food and promote a healthy eating habit among them.


Bae, S. (2014). Diets for Constipation. Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, 17(4), 203. doi: 10.5223/pghn.2014.17.4.203

Fardet, A. (2016). Minimally processed foods are more satiating and less hyperglycemic than ultra-processed foods: a preliminary study with 98 ready-to-eat foods. Food & Function, 7(5), 2338-2346. doi: 10.1039/c6fo00107f

Hussain, M., & Dawson, C. (2013). Economic Impact of Food Safety Outbreaks on Food Businesses. Foods, 2(4), 585-589. doi: 10.3390/foods2040585

Levenstein, H. (2013). Fear of food (1st ed., pp. 1-209). New York: The University of London Press.

ReplyReply to Comment
Collapse SubdiscussionSophia Annest
Sophia Annest
ThursdayJul 23 at 12:42am
The audience worth targeting for the campaign is low-income parents of children 0-18 years old in the United States. Low-income families are disproportionately Black, American Indian, and Hispanic and “there are nearly 72 million children under age 18 in the United States. 44 percent – 31.4 million – live in low-income families” (Jiang et al., 2016). A significant number of low-income families have single parents, “69 percent of all children residing with a single parent—16.6 million—live in low-income families” (Jiang et al., 2016). Parents of low-income families tend to have lower education levels, “among children whose parents have less than a high school degree, 85 percent live in low-income [families]” (Jiang et al., 2016). It appears that employment varies among parents of low-income families, “31 percent of children with at least one parent who works full time, year round—16.1 million—live in low-income families… 74 percent of children with no parent who works full time, but at least one parent who works part time or part year—9.4 million—live in low-income families… 88 percent of children with no employed parents—5.9 million—live in low-income families” (Jiang et al., 2016). Low-income families are most prevalent in the South, “48 percent of children in the South—13.1 million—live in low-income families, 44 percent of children in the West—7.7 million—live in low-income families, 41 percent of children in the Midwest—6.2 million—live in low-income families, 37 percent of children in the Northeast—4.4 million—live in low-income families” (Jiang et al., 2016). Parents living in poverty believe the stress of being in poverty negatively impacts their parenting and that poverty affects their children emotionally (Quint et al., 2018, p. 26). Parents appreciate the financial support of public benefits but feel that the work requirements take away from time with their children and they experience the negative stigma that is associated with receiving welfare (Quint et al., 2018, p. 26). Overall, “parents living in poverty are concerned that they lack the resources to meet their children’s basic needs and to provide them with culturally enriching activities” (Quint et al., 2018, p. 26). The reason it makes sense to target low-income parents is that “children with relatively low family income (<100% of the federal poverty threshold) in the United States are disproportionately burdened by overweight and obesity compared with those with relatively higher family income (≥400% of the federal poverty threshold)” (Oddo and Jones-Smith, 2015, p. 1225). The connection between low-income families and obesity rates indicates that targeting these families is a method to combat obesity in children. Especially for younger children, parents are providing meals for their kids and how parents approach food can be very impactful for preventing obesity. A study from 2014 found that “poverty prior to age 2 years was associated with risk of obesity by age 15.5 years in fully adjusted models” (Lee et al., 2014, p. 70). Low-income parents are likely feeding their children unhealthy foods because they lack the financial resources for healthier food and their environment does not provide many places to buy healthy foods and “regarding the link between low income and childhood obesity, a possible causal mechanism is that low-income children eat a higher proportion of low-quality, high-fat food than children from higher-income families” (Troy et al., 2011, p. 176). I think the best campaign type to reach the target audience of low-income parents of children 0-18 years old in the U.S. would be the behavior-change campaign because the ultimate goal would be to induce a behavior change among these parents towards providing healthier foods for their families. This behavior change among low-income parents of children ages 0-18 years old would likely reduce the obesity rate of children in low-income families.


Jiang, Y., Ekono, M., & Skinner, C. (2016, February 29). Basic Facts about Low-Income Children. NCCP. (Links to an external site.).

Lee, H., PhD., Andrew, M., PhD., Gebremariam, A., M.S., Lumeng, J. C., M.D., & Lee, Joyce M,M.D., M.P.H. (2014). Longitudinal associations between poverty and obesity from birth through adolescence. American Journal of Public Health, 104(5), e70-6. Retrieved from (Links to an external site.)

Oddo, V. M., & Jones-Smith, J. C. (2015). Gains in income during early childhood are associated with decreases in BMI z scores among children in the United States. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 101(6), 1225–1231. (Links to an external site.)

Quint, J., Griffin, K. M., Kaufman, J., & Landers, P. (2018, August 31). Experiences of Parents and Children Living in Poverty. MDRC. (Links to an external site.).

Troy, L. M., Miller, E. A., & Olson, S. (2011). Hunger and obesity: understanding a food insecurity paradigm: workshop summary. National Academies Press.

ReplyReply to Comment
Collapse SubdiscussionCharles Phelps
Charles Phelps
ThursdayJul 23 at 9:11pm
In order to address childhood obesity in America amongst low-income families, it would be effective for us to target the young adult population (ranging from 18-30 years old), with a particular focus on households with genes vulnerable to higher natural weight ranges. The premise behind this target audience is that they have an outsized effect on the presence of childhood obesity within their households: through groceries and meals, rules and behaviors, and intimate connections and trust, they are a primary contributor to the presence of obesity in their children, from the start, and should thus be educated on the situation before starting a family. Thus, for an effective message to this group, their involvement in these factors for obesity should be conveyed through the messaging. At Target, a significant focus is placed on getting expecting mothers to shop there during and after a pregnancy. The cause for this is that shoppers are more likely to stay loyal to the retailers used for their newborns, as their children grow older. People are also far more likely to buy the same things over and over again at grocery stores, regardless of what they truly need. (Duhigg, 2014) These are important statistical behaviors because it demonstrates the power of habit loops, particularly those of a parent caring for their children. Furthermore, the genetic makeup of a kid is a significant factor in their natural weight range. (Oliver, 2006) If we could identify parents with high natural weight ranges, in low income households, using a Behavior Change Campaign would be an effective way to integrate models, habits, and information into their lives and consciousness that could veer children away from obesity from the moments they are born. This is particularly relevant as, according to the CDC, 13.9% of 2-5 year olds in America are obese, and steadily increases with age, up to 20.6% amongst 12-19 year olds. Furthermore, the CDC notes that these rates of obesity are higher among Hispanics (25.8%) and non-Hispanic blacks (22.0%) compared to non-Hispanic whites (14.1%). (CDC, 2019) This is important to our target audience for two reasons: non-white populations are more prone to higher natural weight ranges, and 19% of Hispanic and 22% non-Hispanic black people are living in poverty in America (compared to 9% of white people). (KFF, 2019)(Oliver, 2006) This means that our messaging would do well to focus on these racial groups in particular, but not exclusively, in order to accommodate for the discrepancies in effected populations. The effect of genetics, whether corollary or causal to another data set, solidifies the importance of addressing this issue within the family. It has been found that, “Among pairs of siblings, one becoming obese increased the other’s likelihood of obesity by 40%. In married couples, one spouse becoming obese increased the likelihood of obesity in the other by 37%.” (NIH, 2015) Furthermore, with regard to communities, and important for parents and children to know (as a respectfully informative point) is that “researchers found that friendships can have a crucial influence on a person’s weight. The likelihood of becoming obese increased by nearly 57% if a close friend had become obese. In same-sex friendships, a close friend becoming obese increased a person’s chance of becoming obese by 71%. The effect was strongest among mutual friends, with the risk of obesity rising by 171% if a close mutual friend had became obese.” (NIH, 2015) It is important for parents to understand that Obesity has an effect on both mental and physical health. The CDC notes that obesity can cause bullying, as well as “self isolation, depression, and lower self-esteem.” Furthermore, obese children are at a “higher risk for having other chronic health conditions and diseases, such as asthma, sleep apnea, bone and joint problems, and type 2 diabetes.” As well as, higher risks of heart disease: “In a sample of 5- to 17-year-olds, almost 60% of children who were overweight had at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and 25% had two or more risk factors.” These factors are also all made worse by the fact that obesity in childhood is linked to obesity in adulthood. (CDC, 2020) These factors demonstrate why it is important for parents to be proactive in preventing obesity in their households, something which a Behavior Change Campaign would serve for both the parents and the children all their lives. I also think this is a good style of campaign as it is easily integratabtle to every Americans life, and would be able to be carried on, into the future, both through the internet, and through real life interactions and examples. This accommodates low-income families and people, whether black, white, hispanic, rural, urban, 18 years old, 29 years old, online, or offline.


At this point, you have a good understanding of the purpose of your campaign and your audience. The question now is: how are you going to be persuasive? Last week and this week you read about several types of persuasive strategies. You are asked to explore some of these as well as work on your message design this week. You and your group members are going to divide and conquer – each of you will take a set of questions below, come up with some options and then bring them back to your group.

First, each member should come up with a specific message, so everyone should address question 1 in their post:

What is a possible overall message for your campaign? What are you going to tell your audience? For my anti-smoking campaign, I could create a message that scared my audiences about the dangers of smoking. If I’m trying to reach 18-22 year-olds who haven’t yet seen an impact on their health, I might create a campaign that highlights the health risk in visual ways, like the Tips from Former Smokers example from the Center for Disease Control (Links to an external site.). Your job here is to come up with at least one possible message and why you believe that it will be a good fit for your audience.
Once you’ve identified your message options, your group should assign each member one of the following questions – make sure you’re not doubling-up before you begin. When answering your question, please include the question you’re answering and put all strategies in bold.

How might you sequence your message? Identify at least 2 strategies from chapter 10 and explain how you might use them.
How might you seek compliance gaining and/or deal with resistance to persuasion? Identify at least 2 strategies from chapter 11 and explain how you might use them.
How might you use motivational appeals? Identify at least 2 strategies from chapter 13 and explain how you might use them.
Remember that you can tailor your final campaign so that you use the strategies that best suit your objectives and audience – this benchmark allows you to brainstorm several directions and then decide which is best for your final submission. If it helps you to do more research at this point, feel free to use our library guide (Links to an external site.). No citations are required for this benchmark, however. Your group will need to come to a final decision about strategies and messaging by Friday of this week. Please discuss here or in a meeting (and if you do the latter, make sure the group lead posts a final decision).How might you structure and order your message? Identify at least 2 strategies from chapter 9 and explain how you might use them.

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