Criminal Justice

1. Video Transcript:

>> It can happen in the tall towers of corporate America or in a small business just off Main Street. Someone in a position of power like Representative Mark Foley caught in a steamy scandal involving a lower level staffer and colleagues in the know are hesitant to address the problem or expose it. >> Often people who may be important in the organization in lots of ways. Maybe they’re rain makers, they’re really have an important account, they get a pass. They know that those kinds of things happen. It’s often because of great performance; you don’t want to lose them. >> Debra Kolb a professor at the Simmons School of Management in Boston says to make matters worse sometimes news of a problem doesn’t get to the very top because executives in the corner office are insulated. >> Sometimes that leader can be sending a message that says I’ve often heard this no news is good news. >> The victim of the inappropriate behavior often lacks power and is afraid to speak up. >> They feel when they raise those issues there are going to be negative consequences and guess what, there are negative consequences. People miss out on promotions, they find themselves stuck. >> This happens even though most companies have policies that spell out workplace conduct. What will and will not be tolerated, but experts say what’s on paper isn’t always what’s practiced. Consultant Natalie Camper is often called in to educated employees after inappropriate behavior gets way out of hand. >> And it keeps happening because many people never read the policy and procedures for one thing. And it keeps happening because we live in a sexually saturated society. >> And she says some employees don’t check their personal baggage at the front door. >> When you walk in the door that level of freedom is gone. The workplace is simply not a social club. >> But when someone steps over the line, what should be done? >> People need to know what the policy is and there need to be consequences. >> As for the victim. >> Is there a trusted person, somebody they trust with a little bit higher up in the hierarchy, who also has the ear of the person who’s legging the problem. And an ally can talk to that person. >> Ultimately leaving the desk or office for a trip to human resources may be the best recourse. Potentially saving everyone involved and the company a lot of grief. Dan Lothian, CNN, Boston.”

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Many factors influence whether people act in ethical or unethical ways. These factors become even more powerful in a workplace environment. Some of the factors influencing unethical behavior include a disconnect between executives and lower-level employees and giving a pass to bad actors who are high performers. In order to foster ethical decision-making in an organizational environment, ethical leadership and training must be coupled with the existence and awareness of strong corporate policies and procedures.

1. Strong corporate policies are emphasized as a necessary preventative measure to unethical behavior. However, decisions made pursuant to policy and other variables but without a specific consideration of ethics is an example of what type of cognitive structuring?
a.policy framework

b.four corners ethicality
c.ethics-blind decision-making
d.bounded ethicality
2. If the executives of a corporation demonstrate behavior consistent with corporate policy which lower-level employees aspire to emulate, this is an example of what learning theory?
a.modeling
b.policy adherence
c.mentorship
d.mimicking
3. What term describes a decision-making process that initially addresses the ethical ramifications of the decision choices but which, over time, ultimately ignores ethical considerations?
a.ethical blocking
b.ethical blindness
c.group think
d.ethical fading
4. The video explains how some organizations can turn a blind eye to their great performers. What concept describes how unethical behavior is purposefully ignored because the bad actor is significant to the organization?
a.motivated blindness
b.necessity doctrine
c.incentive ethics
d.organizational blindness
5. What legislative act, which holds executives responsible for the acts of their employees, inspired the adoption of ethics courses and compliance officers in business?
a.the Prevent Act
b.the Sarbanes–Oxley Act
c.the Lee-Turner Act
d.the Corporate Responsibility Act

2. Video Transcript:

>> The issue of same-sex marriage in all 50 states is settled regardless of what the governors, what the judges, what anyone wants in that state, they will have to start allowing same-sex marriages to take place. One question that’s left open is what if individuals within the state who work for state government or for a county say I don’t want to because of my religious beliefs participate, officiate at these ceremonies? What I think is going to happen is these individuals will be allowed to excuse themselves. However every county will have to give same-sex couples the same opportunities that straight couples have. So individuals don’t have to perform the ceremonies, but counties have to give same-sex couples the same rights, the same opportunities as straight couples. There really only two ways that a Supreme Court decision based on the Constitution can be overturned. The first is that new justices can be appointed and those justices can issue a new opinion, which overturns the old one. The other way a decision can be overturned is if the state legislature’s congress amend the Constitution. Both of those are very rare. That’s why most people view Supreme Court decisions as final final final. This decision does not establish equality for gay people in every area of the law. For example in about 30 states it is still legal to be fired simply because they are gay and the same number of states its legal to deny housing solely because they are gay. Those issues are still outstanding regardless of what the Supreme Court held on June 26th.”

The role and justification for law in our society is affected in large part by how society thinks the law should function. Should the law simply enforce the will of the majority or should it serve larger societal goals? The primary justification for law is prevention of harm, including protecting individuals from themselves as well as enforcing society’s morals. The recent debate over the legalization of same-sex marriage exemplifies the latter concern and draws into question the role of law in private affairs and just whom the law is meant to protect.

1. Which Supreme Court decision legalized same-sex marriage in every state?
a.Gideon v. Wainwright

b.Papachristou v. Jacksonville
c.United States v. Windsor
d.Obergefell v. Hodges
2. In the debate over laws prohibiting same-sex marriage, many who argued in favor of such laws cited personal beliefs that same-sex relationships are immoral. What rationale holds that the law should act as the moral agent of society?
a.relative moralism
b.natural relativism
c.legal moralism
d.legal paternalism
3. Which paradigm of law would consider laws prohibiting same-sex marriage from the viewpoint of whether most of the populace believes that that same-sex marriage is wrong?
a.the conflict paradigm
b.the pluralist paradigm
c.the authority paradigm
d.the consensus paradigm
4. Which paradigm of law would consider laws regulating same-sex marriage as a matter of self-interest by those in power at any given time rather than a greater good?
a.the pluralist paradigm
b.the consensus paradigm
c.the conflict paradigm
d.the authority paradigm
5. What term describes laws that concern matters where strong opposing positions exist?
a.oppositional laws
b.laws at the margin
c.fringe laws
d.peripheral laws

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