This Assignment is open-book/open-note. It covers all material (including images, graphs, maps and text) from Chs. 16-Epilogue in the Worlds Together Worlds Apart, Concise Vol. 2 editions textbook.
You will have to answer four (4) of the Ids and one (1) of the essay questions below.
Your answer for each Id should be a long paragraph of at least 4-5 sentences. Your Id answer should include dates, exact information describing the Id, and the significance of that Id to understanding world history.
Your essay answer should be at least 5-6 paragraphs, and should include an introduction which includes your thesis statement, body which includes the development of points in support of your thesis, and conclusion (which restates but does not repeat your introduction). Your essay answer should also include context from the relevant chapter. Each essay question relates to one chapter in the textbook.
You must cite the page no. from the textbook, in-text in parentheses, where you got the information in your Id or essay answer. You should include direct quotes where relevant.
You must write your name on your answers document.
Use the index at the end of the textbook to locate more exactly, where the information for your Ids or essay question is in the textbook. Do not “google” for information, as I am looking for how well you have understood the textbook material (not for how creatively you find information online).
King Leopold II
Recep Tayyip Erdogan
Essays: Choose one of the following essay questions to answer. Include dates and all relevant and exact information and examples in your answer. Essay question worth 40 points.
1. Compare and contrast the following two alternative visions of the 19th century (cf. Ch. 16). Consider gender, and proximity to the changes of the 19th century (political and indiustrial revolutions). The first is by a Muslim woman, daughter of Usman dan Fodio, and sister of his son and successor Mohammad Bello, who led a revivalist movement in western Africa, and the second is by Karl Marx, analyzing the inequalities in an industrialized Europe. Nana Asmau praises her brother’s leadership. Note what she praises, and why. Does her brother resemble or differ from another African ruler in this period, Shaka Zulu? As for Karl Marx, this is an excerpt form his famous Communist Manifesto, which he wrote to encourage workers’ rebellions in Europe in 1848. It’s a call to action, as well as analysis. Note his emphasis on historical inequality, but what he feels is different about the plight of the working classes and their chances for success in rebelling. Question: Who or what are the agents of the changes these authors feel are necessary for their societies in the 19th century and why?
Nana Asmau (1838-1839):
… He obeyed religious injunctions and distanced himself from forbidden things: this is what is known about him… He preached to people and instructed them about God: he caused them to long for Paradise…. he was modest and a repository of useful knowledge… He was thoughtful, calm, a confident statesman and quick-witted…. He divorced himself entirely from bribery and was totally scrupulous: He flung back at the givers money offered for titles… He was able to expedite matters: he facilitated learning, commerce, and defense, and encouraged everything good… He
shouldered responsibilities and patiently endured adversities… (P.777)
Karl Marx (1848):
The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Freeman and slave, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another…. The modern bourgeois society that has sprouted from the ruins of feudal society has not done away with class antagonisms. It has but established new classes, new conditions of oppression, new forms of struggle in place of the old ones…. The bourgeoisie… has put an end to all feudal, patriarchal, idyllic relations… and has left remaining no other nexus between man and man than naked self-interest…Owing to the extensive use of machinery… the work of the proletarians has lost all individual character… He becomes an appendage of the machine… Now and then the workers are victorious, but only for a time. The real fruit of their battles lies, not in the immediate result, but in the ever expanding union of the workers. This union is helped on by the improved means of communication that are created by modern industry, and that place the workers of different localities in contact with one another…. the victory of the proletariat [is] .. inevitable. (p. 783)
2. Compare the following two excerpts on nation and empire in the 19th and early 20th centuries (cf Chs. 17 and 18). The first is from the General Act of the Berlin Conference at which seven European countries “scrambled” to carve up colonies in the continent of Africa, and the second is a speech given by an Egyptian nationalist and feminist. Note the audience of the Berlin conference; does it address the needs of Africans? How? As for the Egyptian feminist Bahthat al-Badiya (aka Malak Hifni Nassef), what kinds of changes is she calling for? Is she a feminist or a nationalist? Question: How do these excerpts reflect the difference between nation and empire?
General Act of the Conference of Berlin (1885):
In the name of Almighty God… Wishing to regulate in the spirit of good mutual understanding the conditions most favorable to the development of commerce and of civilization in certain regions of Africa… to assemble for this object a Conference at Berlin… Article 1: The commerce of all nations shall enjoy complete liberty; Article 5: Every Power which exercises or shall exercise rights of sovereignty in the territories under consideration shall not concede there either monopoly or privilege of any kind in commercial matters…. Article 6: All powers exercising sovereignty… engage themselves to watch over the conservation of the indigenous populations and the amelioration of their moral and material conditions of existence…; they shall protect … al institutions … created…. to instruct the natives and to make them understand and appreciate the advantages of civilization. The Christian missionaries…. Shall be equally the object of special protection. (pp. 829-830).
Bahithat al-Badiya (1909):
…Our meeting today is not simply for getting acquainted… At the moment there is a semi-feud between us and men… Men blame the discord on our poor upbringing… while we claim it is due to men’s arrogance and pride… Men say when we become educated we shall push them out of work and abandon the role for which God has created us…. Specialised work for each sex is a matter of convention. It is not mandatory… Nothing irritates me more than when men claim they do not wish us to work because they wish to spare us the burden. We do not want condescension, we want respect…. Men criticize the way we dress in the street… I do not advocate a return of the veils of our grandmothers…I do not, on the other hand, advocate unveiling, like Europeans… Veiling should not prevent us from breathing fresh air … It must not prevent us from gaining an education nor cause our health to deteriorate… If we pursue everything western we shall destroy our own civilisation and a nation that has lost its civilisation grows weak and vanishes. (pp. 877-878)
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